I have an order for designing a large Preaction Fire Sprinkler System in some kind of underground computer farm. Now that I lost most of my capital, I have to work more to remake myself and this high tech thingie seems profitable.
Preaction fire sprinkler systems employ the basic concept of a dry pipe system in that water is not normally contained within the pipes. The difference, however, is that water is held from piping by an electrically operated valve, known as a pre-action valve. Valve operation is controlled by independent flame, heat, or smoke detection.
Two separate events must happen to initiate sprinkler discharge. First, the detection system must identify a developing fire and then open the preaction valve. This allows water to flow into system piping, which effectively creates a wet pipe sprinkler system. Second, individual sprinkler heads must release to permit water flow onto the fire.
In some instances, the preaction system may be set up with a double interlock in which pressurized air or nitrogen is added to system piping. The purpose of this feature is two-fold: first to monitor piping for leaks and second to hold water from system piping in the event of inadvertent detector operation. The most common application for this system type is in freezer warehouses.
Advantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include: • The dual action required for water release - The pre-action valve must operate and sprinkler heads must fuse. This feature provides an added level of protection against inadvertent discharge. For this reason, preaction systems are frequently employed in water sensitive environments such as archival vaults, fine art storage rooms, rare book libraries and computer centers.
Disadvantages of using pre-action fire sprinkler systems include: • Higher installation and maintenance costs - Preaction systems are more complex with several additional components, notably a fire detection system. This adds to the overall system cost. Modification difficulties - As with dry-pipe systems, preaction sprinkler systems have specific size limitations which may impact future system modifications. In addition, system modifications must incorporate changes to the fire detection and control system to ensure proper operation. • Potential decreased reliability - The higher level of complexity associated with preaction systems creates an increased chance that something may not work when needed. Regular maintenance is essential to ensure reliability.
Deluge Fire Sprinkler System A slight variation of pre-action fire sprinklers is the deluge system, which is basically a pre-action system using open sprinklers. Operation of the fire detection system releases a deluge valve, which in turn produces immediate water flow through all sprinklers in a given area. Typical deluge systems applications are found in specialized industrial situations, i.e. aircraft hangers and chemical plants, where high velocity suppression is necessary to prevent fire spread.
On-Off Fire Sprinkler SystemAnother pre-action system variation is the on-off system. This system utilizes the basic arrangement of a pre-action system, with the addition of a thermal detector and non-latching alarm panel. The system functions similar to any other pre-action sprinkler system, except that as the fire is extinguished, a thermal device cools to allow the control panel to shut off water flow. If the fire should re ignite, the system will turn back on.